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Thursday, 8 February 2018

Real-Time Detection of Traffic From Twitter Stream Analysis(2015)

Real-Time Detection of Traffic From Twitter 

Stream Analysis(2015)

Social networks have been recently employed as a source of information for event detection, with particular reference to road traffic congestion and car accidents. In this paper, we present a real-time monitoring system for traffic event detection from Twitter stream analysis. The system fetches tweets from Twitter according to several search criteria; processes tweets, by applying text mining techniques; and finally performs the classification of tweets. The aim is to assign the appropriate class label to each tweet, as related to a traffic event or not. The traffic detection system was employed for real-time monitoring of several areas of the Italian road network, allowing for detection of traffic events almost in real time, often before online traffic news web sites. We employed the support vector machine as a classification model, and we achieved an accuracy value of 95.75% by solving a binary classification problem (traffic versus non-traffic tweets). We were also able to discriminate if traffic is caused by an external event or not, by solving a multiclass classification problem and obtaining an accuracy value of 88.89%
  •  Recently, social networks and media platforms have been widely used as a source of information for the detection of events, such as traffic congestion, incidents, natural disasters (earthquakes, storms, fires, etc.), or other events.
  •  Sakaki et al. use Twitter streams to detect earthquakes and typhoons, by monitoring special trigger-keywords, and by applying an SVM as a binary classifier of positive events (earthquakes and typhoons) and negative events (non-events or other events)
  •  Agarwal et al. focus on the detection of fires in a factory from Twitter stream analysis, by using standard NLP techniques and a Naive Bayes (NB) classifier.
  •  Li et al. propose a system, called TEDAS, to retrieve incident-related tweets. The system focuses on Crime and Disaster-related Events (CDE) such as shootings, thunderstorms, and car accidents, and aims to classify tweets as CDE events by exploiting a filtering based on keywords, spatial and temporal information, number of followers of the user, number of retweets, hashtags, links, and mentions.
,Event detection from social networks analysis is a more challenging problem than event detection from traditional media like blogs, emails, etc., where texts are well formatted.
 SUMs are unstructured and irregular texts, they contain informal or abbreviated words, misspellings or grammatical errors. SUMs contain a huge amount of not useful or meaningless information
  1.  In this paper, we propose an intelligent system, based on text mining and machine learning algorithms, for real-time detection of traffic events from Twitter stream analysis.
  2.  The system, after a feasibility study, has been designed and developed from the ground as an event-driven infrastructure, built on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).
  3.  The system exploits available technologies based on state-of-the-art techniques for text analysis and pattern classification. These technologies and techniques have been analyzed, tuned, adapted, and integrated in order to build the intelligent system.
  4.  In particular, we present an experimental study, which has been performed for determining the most effective among different state-of-the-art approaches for text classification. The chosen approach was integrated into the final system and used for the on-the-field real-time detection of traffic events.
  5.  In this paper, we focus on a particular small-scale event, i.e., road traffic, and we aim to detect and analyze traffic events by processing users’ SUMs belonging to a certain area and written in the Italian language. To this aim, we propose a system able to fetch, elaborate, and classify SUMs as related to a road traffic event or not.
  6.  To the best of our knowledge, few papers have been proposed for traffic detection using Twitter stream analysis. However, with respect to our work, all of them focus on languages different from Italian, employ different input features and/or feature selection algorithms, and consider only binary classifications.
  •  Tweets are up to 140 characters, enhancing the real-time and news-oriented nature of the platform. In fact, the life-time of tweets is usually very short, thus Twitter is the social network platform that is best suited to study SUMs related to real-time events.
  •  Each tweet can be directly associated with meta-information that constitutes additional information.
  •  Twitter messages are public, i.e., they are directly available with no privacy limitations. For all of these reasons, Twitter is a good source of information for real-time event detection and analysis.
  •  Moreover, the proposed system could work together with other traffic sensors (e.g., loop detectors, cameras, infrared cameras) and ITS monitoring systems for the detection of traffic difficulties, providing a low-cost wide coverage of the road network, especially in those areas (e.g., urban and suburban) where traditional traffic sensors are missing.
  •  It performs a multi-class classification, which recognizes non-traffictraffic due to congestion or crash, and traffic due to external events
  •  It detects the traffic events in real-time; and iii) it is developed as an event-driven infrastructure, built on an SOA architecture.
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Eleonora D’Andrea, Pietro Ducange, Beatrice Lazzerini, Member, IEEE, and Francesco Marcelloni, Member, IEEE, “Real-Time Detection of Traffic From Twitter Stream Analysis”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 4, AUGUST 2015.

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