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Friday, 23 February 2018

Distributed Explicit Rate Schemes in Multi-Input-Multi-Output Network Systems(2010)


Distributed Explicit Rate Schemes in 

Multi-Input-Multi-Output Network Systems(2010)

Abstract
With the ever-increasing wireless/wired data applications recently, considerable efforts have focused on the design of distributed explicit rate flow control schemes for multi-inputmulti- output service. This paper describes two novel wireless/wired multipoint-to-multipoint multicast flow control schemes, which are based on the distributed self-tuning proportional integrative plus derivative (SPID) controller and distributed self-tuning proportional plus integrative (SPI) controller, respectively. The control parameters can be designed to ensure the stability of the control loop in terms of source rate.
The distributed explicit rate SPID and SPI controllers are located at the wireless/wired multipoint to- multipoint multicast source to regulate the transmission rate. We further analyze the theoretical aspects of the proposed algorithm, and showhowthe control mechanism can be used to design a controller to support wireless/wired multipoint-to-multipoint multicast Transmissions. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme in terms of system stability, fast response, low packet loss, and high scalability, and the results also showSPID scheme has better performance than SPI scheme, however, SPID scheme requires more computing time and CPU resource.
Proposed System:
We Proposed Especially with ever-increasing multicast data applications, wireless and wired multicast (multipoint-to-multipoint) transmission has considerable effect on many applications such as teleconferencing and information dissemination services. Multicast improves the efficiency of multipoint data distribution from multiple senders to a set of receivers . Unfortunately, the widely used multicast transport protocols, which are layered on top of IP multicast, can cause congestion or even congestion collapse if adequate flow control is not provided. Flow control thus plays an important role in the traffic management of multicast communications.
Several multicast flow approaches have been proposed recently. One class of them adopts a simple hop-by-hop feedback mechanism, in which the feedback, i.e., backward control packets (BCPs), from downstream nodes are initially gathered at branch points, and then are transmitted upward by a single hop upon receipt of a forward control packet (FCP). This kind of manipulation can be carried out on the basis of the tree structure in a multicast transmission. These schemes then introduce another problem of slow transient response due to the feedback from “long” paths. Such delayed congestion feedback can cause excessive queue buildup/packet loss at bottleneck links.
Merit of proposed system:
1. Data transfer rate is adjusted at the source
2. Group node makes sure that the buffer occupancy stabilizes and never overflows the buffer capacity.
3. These are active and effective methods to adjust the sending rates, and reduce the packets loss.
4. a lot of approaches use queue schemes to solve congestion control problems
5.The main proposed scheme in terms of system stability and fast response to the buffer occupancy, as well as controlled sending rates, low packet loss, and high scalability.
Packet Sequence Numbers
A packet sequence number is a 32 bit number in the range from 1 through 2^32 û 1, which is used to specify the sequential order of a Data packet in a Data Stream. A sender node assigns consecutive sequence numbers to the Data packets provided by the Sender application. Zero is reserved to indicate that the data session has not yet started.
Data Queue
A Data Queue is a buffer, maintained by a Sender or a Repair Head, for transmission and retransmission of the Data packets provided by the Sender application. New Data packets are added to the data queue as they arrive from the sending application, up to a specified buffer limit. The admission rate of packets to the network is controlled by flow and congestion control algorithms. Once a packet has been received by the Receivers of a Data Stream, it may be deleted from the buffer.
Algorithm Used:
1. Distributed ER allocation algorithm.
In this algorithm, flow controllers regulate the source rate at a multicast tree, which accounts for the buffer occupancies of all destination nodes. The proposed control scheme uses a distributed self-tuning proportional integrative plus derivative (SPID) controller or uses a distributed self-tuning proportional plus integrative (SPI) controller. The control parameters can be designed to ensure the stability of the control loop in terms of source rate.We further show how the control mechanism can be used to design a controller to support multipoint-to-multipoint multicast transmission based on ER feedback. System stability criterion is derived in the presence of destination nodes with heterogeneous RTTs.
2. SPID and SPI Algorithms
Each branch point of the multicast tree replicates each data packet and FCP from its upstream node to all its downstream branches. The downstream nodes return their congestion information via BCPs to the parents through the backward direction once they receive FCPs. Assume that congestion never happens at the router connected with the sources; hence, these two can be consolidated into one node, which is true in most cases in real networks
3. System Configuration     
HARDWARE REQUIREMENT:
System                : Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.
Hard Disk            : 40 GB.
Floppy Drive       : 1.44 Mb.
Monitor               : 15 VGA Colour.
Mouse                 : Logitech.
Ram                     : 256 Mb.
 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT:
Operating system        : - Windows XP Professional.
Coding Language         : - Java.
Tool Used                     : - Eclipse.

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