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Wednesday, 13 June 2018

Python New and Improved Modules

As in every release, Python’s standard library received a number of enhancements and bug fixes. Here’s a partial list of the most notable changes, sorted alphabetically by module name. Consult the Misc/NEWS file in the source tree for a more complete list of changes, or look through the Subversion logs for all the details.
  • The bdb module’s base debugging class Bdb gained a feature for skipping modules. The constructor now takes an iterable containing glob-style patterns such as django.*; the debugger will not step into stack frames from a module that matches one of these patterns. (Contributed by Maru Newby after a suggestion by Senthil Kumaran; bpo-5142.)
  • The binascii module now supports the buffer API, so it can be used with memoryview instances and other similar buffer objects. (Backported from 3.x by Florent Xicluna; bpo-7703.)
  • Updated module: the bsddb module has been updated from 4.7.2devel9 to version 4.8.4 of the pybsddb package. The new version features better Python 3.x compatibility, various bug fixes, and adds several new BerkeleyDB flags and methods. (Updated by Jesús Cea Avión; bpo-8156. The pybsddb changelog can be read at
  • The bz2 module’s BZ2File now supports the context management protocol, so you can write with bz2.BZ2File(...) as f:. (Contributed by Hagen Fürstenau; bpo-3860.)
  • New class: the Counter class in the collections module is useful for tallying data. Counter instances behave mostly like dictionaries but return zero for missing keys instead of raising a KeyError:
    >>> from collections import Counter
    >>> c = Counter()
    >>> for letter in 'here is a sample of english text':
    ...   c[letter] += 1
    >>> c
    Counter({' ': 6, 'e': 5, 's': 3, 'a': 2, 'i': 2, 'h': 2,
    'l': 2, 't': 2, 'g': 1, 'f': 1, 'm': 1, 'o': 1, 'n': 1,
    'p': 1, 'r': 1, 'x': 1})
    >>> c['e']
    >>> c['z']
    There are three additional Counter methods. most_common() returns the N most common elements and their counts. elements() returns an iterator over the contained elements, repeating each element as many times as its count. subtract() takes an iterable and subtracts one for each element instead of adding; if the argument is a dictionary or another Counter, the counts are subtracted.
    >>> c.most_common(5)
    [(' ', 6), ('e', 5), ('s', 3), ('a', 2), ('i', 2)]
    >>> c.elements() ->
       'a', 'a', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ',
       'e', 'e', 'e', 'e', 'e', 'g', 'f', 'i', 'i',
       'h', 'h', 'm', 'l', 'l', 'o', 'n', 'p', 's',
       's', 's', 'r', 't', 't', 'x'
    >>> c['e']
    >>> c.subtract('very heavy on the letter e')
    >>> c['e']    # Count is now lower
    Contributed by Raymond Hettinger; bpo-1696199.
    New class: OrderedDict is described in the earlier section PEP 372: Adding an Ordered Dictionary to collections.
    New method: The deque data type now has a count() method that returns the number of contained elements equal to the supplied argument x, and a reverse() method that reverses the elements of the deque in-place. deque also exposes its maximum length as the read-only maxlen attribute. (Both features added by Raymond Hettinger.)
    The namedtuple class now has an optional rename parameter. If rename is true, field names that are invalid because they’ve been repeated or aren’t legal Python identifiers will be renamed to legal names that are derived from the field’s position within the list of fields:
    >>> from collections import namedtuple
    >>> T = namedtuple('T', ['field1', '$illegal', 'for', 'field2'], rename=True)
    >>> T._fields
    ('field1', '_1', '_2', 'field2')
    (Added by Raymond Hettinger; bpo-1818.)
    Finally, the Mapping abstract base class now returns NotImplemented if a mapping is compared to another type that isn’t a Mapping. (Fixed by Daniel Stutzbach; bpo-8729.)
  • Constructors for the parsing classes in the ConfigParser module now take an allow_no_value parameter, defaulting to false; if true, options without values will be allowed. For example:
    >>> import ConfigParser, StringIO
    >>> sample_config = """
    ... [mysqld]
    ... user = mysql
    ... pid-file = /var/run/mysqld/
    ... skip-bdb
    ... """
    >>> config = ConfigParser.RawConfigParser(allow_no_value=True)
    >>> config.readfp(StringIO.StringIO(sample_config))
    >>> config.get('mysqld', 'user')
    >>> print config.get('mysqld', 'skip-bdb')
    >>> print config.get('mysqld', 'unknown')
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    NoOptionError: No option 'unknown' in section: 'mysqld'
    (Contributed by Mats Kindahl; bpo-7005.)
  • Deprecated function: contextlib.nested(), which allows handling more than one context manager with a single with statement, has been deprecated, because the with statement now supports multiple context managers.
  • The cookielib module now ignores cookies that have an invalid version field, one that doesn’t contain an integer value. (Fixed by John J. Lee; bpo-3924.)
  • The copy module’s deepcopy() function will now correctly copy bound instance methods. (Implemented by Robert Collins; bpo-1515.)
  • The ctypes module now always converts None to a C NULL pointer for arguments declared as pointers. (Changed by Thomas Heller; bpo-4606.) The underlying libffi library has been updated to version 3.0.9, containing various fixes for different platforms. (Updated by Matthias Klose; bpo-8142.)
  • New method: the datetime module’s timedelta class gained a total_seconds() method that returns the number of seconds in the duration. (Contributed by Brian Quinlan; bpo-5788.)
  • New method: the Decimal class gained a from_float() class method that performs an exact conversion of a floating-point number to a Decimal. This exact conversion strives for the closest decimal approximation to the floating-point representation’s value; the resulting decimal value will therefore still include the inaccuracy, if any. For example, Decimal.from_float(0.1) returns Decimal('0.1000000000000000055511151231257827021181583404541015625'). (Implemented by Raymond Hettinger; bpo-4796.)
    Comparing instances of Decimal with floating-point numbers now produces sensible results based on the numeric values of the operands. Previously such comparisons would fall back to Python’s default rules for comparing objects, which produced arbitrary results based on their type. Note that you still cannot combine Decimal and floating-point in other operations such as addition, since you should be explicitly choosing how to convert between float and Decimal. (Fixed by Mark Dickinson; bpo-2531.)
    The constructor for Decimal now accepts floating-point numbers (added by Raymond Hettinger; bpo-8257) and non-European Unicode characters such as Arabic-Indic digits (contributed by Mark Dickinson; bpo-6595).
    Most of the methods of the Context class now accept integers as well as Decimal instances; the only exceptions are the canonical() and is_canonical() methods. (Patch by Juan José Conti; bpo-7633.)
    When using Decimal instances with a string’s format() method, the default alignment was previously left-alignment. This has been changed to right-alignment, which is more sensible for numeric types. (Changed by Mark Dickinson; bpo-6857.)
    Comparisons involving a signaling NaN value (or sNAN) now signal InvalidOperation instead of silently returning a true or false value depending on the comparison operator. Quiet NaN values (or NaN) are now hashable. (Fixed by Mark Dickinson; bpo-7279.)
  • The difflib module now produces output that is more compatible with modern diff/patch tools through one small change, using a tab character instead of spaces as a separator in the header giving the filename. (Fixed by Anatoly Techtonik; bpo-7585.)
  • The Distutils sdist command now always regenerates the MANIFEST file, since even if the or files haven’t been modified, the user might have created some new files that should be included. (Fixed by Tarek Ziadé; bpo-8688.)
  • The doctest module’s IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL flag will now ignore the name of the module containing the exception being tested. (Patch by Lennart Regebro; bpo-7490.)
  • The email module’s Message class will now accept a Unicode-valued payload, automatically converting the payload to the encoding specified by output_charset. (Added by R. David Murray; bpo-1368247.)
  • The Fraction class now accepts a single float or Decimal instance, or two rational numbers, as arguments to its constructor. (Implemented by Mark Dickinson; rationals added in bpo-5812, and float/decimal in bpo-8294.)
    Ordering comparisons (<<=>>=) between fractions and complex numbers now raise a TypeError. This fixes an oversight, making the Fractionmatch the other numeric types.
  • New class: FTP_TLS in the ftplib module provides secure FTP connections using TLS encapsulation of authentication as well as subsequent control and data transfers. (Contributed by Giampaolo Rodola; bpo-2054.)
    The storbinary() method for binary uploads can now restart uploads thanks to an added rest parameter (patch by Pablo Mouzo; bpo-6845.)
  • New class decorator: total_ordering() in the functools module takes a class that defines an __eq__() method and one of __lt__()__le__()__gt__(), or __ge__(), and generates the missing comparison methods. Since the __cmp__() method is being deprecated in Python 3.x, this decorator makes it easier to define ordered classes. (Added by Raymond Hettinger; bpo-5479.)
    New function: cmp_to_key() will take an old-style comparison function that expects two arguments and return a new callable that can be used as the key parameter to functions such as sorted()min() and max(), etc. The primary intended use is to help with making code compatible with Python 3.x. (Added by Raymond Hettinger.)
  • New function: the gc module’s is_tracked() returns true if a given instance is tracked by the garbage collector, false otherwise. (Contributed by Antoine Pitrou; bpo-4688.)
  • The gzip module’s GzipFile now supports the context management protocol, so you can write with gzip.GzipFile(...) as f: (contributed by Hagen Fürstenau; bpo-3860), and it now implements the io.BufferedIOBase ABC, so you can wrap it with io.BufferedReader for faster processing (contributed by Nir Aides; bpo-7471). It’s also now possible to override the modification time recorded in a gzipped file by providing an optional timestamp to the constructor. (Contributed by Jacques Frechet; bpo-4272.)
    Files in gzip format can be padded with trailing zero bytes; the gzip module will now consume these trailing bytes. (Fixed by Tadek Pietraszek and Brian Curtin; bpo-2846.)
  • New attribute: the hashlib module now has an algorithms attribute containing a tuple naming the supported algorithms. In Python 2.7, hashlib.algorithms contains ('md5', 'sha1', 'sha224', 'sha256', 'sha384', 'sha512'). (Contributed by Carl Chenet; bpo-7418.)
  • The default HTTPResponse class used by the httplib module now supports buffering, resulting in much faster reading of HTTP responses. (Contributed by Kristján Valur Jónsson; bpo-4879.)
    The HTTPConnection and HTTPSConnection classes now support a source_address parameter, a (host, port) 2-tuple giving the source address that will be used for the connection. (Contributed by Eldon Ziegler; bpo-3972.)
  • The ihooks module now supports relative imports. Note that ihooks is an older module for customizing imports, superseded by the imputil module added in Python 2.0. (Relative import support added by Neil Schemenauer.)
  • The imaplib module now supports IPv6 addresses. (Contributed by Derek Morr; bpo-1655.)
  • New function: the inspect module’s getcallargs() takes a callable and its positional and keyword arguments, and figures out which of the callable’s parameters will receive each argument, returning a dictionary mapping argument names to their values. For example:
    >>> from inspect import getcallargs
    >>> def f(a, b=1, *pos, **named):
    ...     pass
    >>> getcallargs(f, 1, 2, 3)
    {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'pos': (3,), 'named': {}}
    >>> getcallargs(f, a=2, x=4)
    {'a': 2, 'b': 1, 'pos': (), 'named': {'x': 4}}
    >>> getcallargs(f)
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    TypeError: f() takes at least 1 argument (0 given)
    Contributed by George Sakkis; bpo-3135.
  • Updated module: The io library has been upgraded to the version shipped with Python 3.1. For 3.1, the I/O library was entirely rewritten in C and is 2 to 20 times faster depending on the task being performed. The original Python version was renamed to the _pyio module.
    One minor resulting change: the io.TextIOBase class now has an errors attribute giving the error setting used for encoding and decoding errors (one of 'strict''replace''ignore').
    The io.FileIO class now raises an OSError when passed an invalid file descriptor. (Implemented by Benjamin Peterson; bpo-4991.) The truncate()method now preserves the file position; previously it would change the file position to the end of the new file. (Fixed by Pascal Chambon; bpo-6939.)
  • New function: itertools.compress(data, selectors) takes two iterators. Elements of data are returned if the corresponding value in selectors is true:
    itertools.compress('ABCDEF', [1,0,1,0,1,1]) =>
      A, C, E, F
    New function: itertools.combinations_with_replacement(iter, r) returns all the possible r-length combinations of elements from the iterable iter. Unlike combinations(), individual elements can be repeated in the generated combinations:
    itertools.combinations_with_replacement('abc', 2) =>
      ('a', 'a'), ('a', 'b'), ('a', 'c'),
      ('b', 'b'), ('b', 'c'), ('c', 'c')
    Note that elements are treated as unique depending on their position in the input, not their actual values.
    The itertools.count() function now has a step argument that allows incrementing by values other than 1. count() also now allows keyword arguments, and using non-integer values such as floats or Decimal instances. (Implemented by Raymond Hettinger; bpo-5032.)
    itertools.combinations() and itertools.product() previously raised ValueError for values of r larger than the input iterable. This was deemed a specification error, so they now return an empty iterator. (Fixed by Raymond Hettinger; bpo-4816.)
  • Updated module: The json module was upgraded to version 2.0.9 of the simplejson package, which includes a C extension that makes encoding and decoding faster. (Contributed by Bob Ippolito; bpo-4136.)
    To support the new collections.OrderedDict type, json.load() now has an optional object_pairs_hook parameter that will be called with any object literal that decodes to a list of pairs. (Contributed by Raymond Hettinger; bpo-5381.)
  • The mailbox module’s Maildir class now records the timestamp on the directories it reads, and only re-reads them if the modification time has subsequently changed. This improves performance by avoiding unneeded directory scans. (Fixed by A.M. Kuchling and Antoine Pitrou; bpo-1607951bpo-6896.)
  • New functions: the math module gained erf() and erfc() for the error function and the complementary error function, expm1() which computes e**x -1 with more precision than using exp() and subtracting 1, gamma() for the Gamma function, and lgamma() for the natural log of the Gamma function. (Contributed by Mark Dickinson and nirinA raseliarison; bpo-3366.)
  • The multiprocessing module’s Manager* classes can now be passed a callable that will be called whenever a subprocess is started, along with a set of arguments that will be passed to the callable. (Contributed by lekma; bpo-5585.)
    The Pool class, which controls a pool of worker processes, now has an optional maxtasksperchild parameter. Worker processes will perform the specified number of tasks and then exit, causing the Pool to start a new worker. This is useful if tasks may leak memory or other resources, or if some tasks will cause the worker to become very large. (Contributed by Charles Cazabon; bpo-6963.)
  • The nntplib module now supports IPv6 addresses. (Contributed by Derek Morr; bpo-1664.)
  • New functions: the os module wraps the following POSIX system calls: getresgid() and getresuid(), which return the real, effective, and saved GIDs and UIDs; setresgid() and setresuid(), which set real, effective, and saved GIDs and UIDs to new values; initgroups(), which initialize the group access list for the current process. (GID/UID functions contributed by Travis H.; bpo-6508. Support for initgroups added by Jean-Paul Calderone; bpo-7333.)
    The os.fork() function now re-initializes the import lock in the child process; this fixes problems on Solaris when fork() is called from a thread. (Fixed by Zsolt Cserna; bpo-7242.)
  • In the os.path module, the normpath() and abspath() functions now preserve Unicode; if their input path is a Unicode string, the return value is also a Unicode string. (normpath() fixed by Matt Giuca in bpo-5827abspath() fixed by Ezio Melotti in bpo-3426.)
  • The pydoc module now has help for the various symbols that Python uses. You can now do help('<<') or help('@'), for example. (Contributed by David Laban; bpo-4739.)
  • The re module’s split()sub(), and subn() now accept an optional flags argument, for consistency with the other functions in the module. (Added by Gregory P. Smith.)
  • New function: run_path() in the runpy module will execute the code at a provided path argument. path can be the path of a Python source file (, a compiled bytecode file (example.pyc), a directory (./package/), or a zip archive ( If a directory or zip path is provided, it will be added to the front of sys.path and the module __main__ will be imported. It’s expected that the directory or zip contains a; if it doesn’t, some other might be imported from a location later in sys.path. This makes more of the machinery of runpy available to scripts that want to mimic the way Python’s command line processes an explicit path name. (Added by Nick Coghlan; bpo-6816.)
  • New function: in the shutil module, make_archive() takes a filename, archive type (zip or tar-format), and a directory path, and creates an archive containing the directory’s contents. (Added by Tarek Ziadé.)
    shutil’s copyfile() and copytree() functions now raise a SpecialFileError exception when asked to copy a named pipe. Previously the code would treat named pipes like a regular file by opening them for reading, and this would block indefinitely. (Fixed by Antoine Pitrou; bpo-3002.)
  • The signal module no longer re-installs the signal handler unless this is truly necessary, which fixes a bug that could make it impossible to catch the EINTR signal robustly. (Fixed by Charles-Francois Natali; bpo-8354.)
  • New functions: in the site module, three new functions return various site- and user-specific paths. getsitepackages() returns a list containing all global site-packages directories, getusersitepackages() returns the path of the user’s site-packages directory, and getuserbase() returns the value of the USER_BASE environment variable, giving the path to a directory that can be used to store data. (Contributed by Tarek Ziadé; bpo-6693.)
    The site module now reports exceptions occurring when the sitecustomize module is imported, and will no longer catch and swallow the KeyboardInterrupt exception. (Fixed by Victor Stinner; bpo-3137.)
  • The create_connection() function gained a source_address parameter, a (host, port) 2-tuple giving the source address that will be used for the connection. (Contributed by Eldon Ziegler; bpo-3972.)
    The recv_into() and recvfrom_into() methods will now write into objects that support the buffer API, most usefully the bytearray and memoryviewobjects. (Implemented by Antoine Pitrou; bpo-8104.)
  • The SocketServer module’s TCPServer class now supports socket timeouts and disabling the Nagle algorithm. The disable_nagle_algorithm class attribute defaults to False; if overridden to be true, new request connections will have the TCP_NODELAY option set to prevent buffering many small sends into a single TCP packet. The timeout class attribute can hold a timeout in seconds that will be applied to the request socket; if no request is received within that time, handle_timeout() will be called and handle_request() will return. (Contributed by Kristján Valur Jónsson; bpo-6192and bpo-6267.)
  • Updated module: the sqlite3 module has been updated to version 2.6.0 of the pysqlite package. Version 2.6.0 includes a number of bugfixes, and adds the ability to load SQLite extensions from shared libraries. Call the enable_load_extension(True) method to enable extensions, and then call load_extension() to load a particular shared library. (Updated by Gerhard Häring.)
  • The ssl module’s SSLSocket objects now support the buffer API, which fixed a test suite failure (fix by Antoine Pitrou; bpo-7133) and automatically set OpenSSL’s SSL_MODE_AUTO_RETRY, which will prevent an error code being returned from recv() operations that trigger an SSL renegotiation (fix by Antoine Pitrou; bpo-8222).
    The ssl.wrap_socket() constructor function now takes a ciphers argument that’s a string listing the encryption algorithms to be allowed; the format of the string is described in the OpenSSL documentation. (Added by Antoine Pitrou; bpo-8322.)
    Another change makes the extension load all of OpenSSL’s ciphers and digest algorithms so that they’re all available. Some SSL certificates couldn’t be verified, reporting an “unknown algorithm” error. (Reported by Beda Kosata, and fixed by Antoine Pitrou; bpo-8484.)
    The version of OpenSSL being used is now available as the module attributes ssl.OPENSSL_VERSION (a string), ssl.OPENSSL_VERSION_INFO (a 5-tuple), and ssl.OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER (an integer). (Added by Antoine Pitrou; bpo-8321.)
  • The struct module will no longer silently ignore overflow errors when a value is too large for a particular integer format code (one of bBhHiIlLqQ); it now always raises a struct.error exception. (Changed by Mark Dickinson; bpo-1523.) The pack() function will also attempt to use __index__() to convert and pack non-integers before trying the __int__() method or reporting an error. (Changed by Mark Dickinson; bpo-8300.)
  • New function: the subprocess module’s check_output() runs a command with a specified set of arguments and returns the command’s output as a string when the command runs without error, or raises a CalledProcessError exception otherwise.
    >>> subprocess.check_output(['df', '-h', '.'])
    'Filesystem     Size   Used  Avail Capacity  Mounted on\n
    /dev/disk0s2    52G    49G   3.0G    94%    /\n'
    >>> subprocess.check_output(['df', '-h', '/bogus'])
    subprocess.CalledProcessError: Command '['df', '-h', '/bogus']' returned non-zero exit status 1
    (Contributed by Gregory P. Smith.)
    The subprocess module will now retry its internal system calls on receiving an EINTR signal. (Reported by several people; final patch by Gregory P. Smith in bpo-1068268.)
  • New function: is_declared_global() in the symtable module returns true for variables that are explicitly declared to be global, false for ones that are implicitly global. (Contributed by Jeremy Hylton.)
  • The syslog module will now use the value of sys.argv[0] as the identifier instead of the previous default value of 'python'. (Changed by Sean Reifschneider; bpo-8451.)
  • The sys.version_info value is now a named tuple, with attributes named majorminormicroreleaselevel, and serial. (Contributed by Ross Light; bpo-4285.)
    sys.getwindowsversion() also returns a named tuple, with attributes named majorminorbuildplatformservice_packservice_pack_major,service_pack_minorsuite_mask, and product_type. (Contributed by Brian Curtin; bpo-7766.)
  • The tarfile module’s default error handling has changed, to no longer suppress fatal errors. The default error level was previously 0, which meant that errors would only result in a message being written to the debug log, but because the debug log is not activated by default, these errors go unnoticed. The default error level is now 1, which raises an exception if there’s an error. (Changed by Lars Gustäbel; bpo-7357.)
    tarfile now supports filtering the TarInfo objects being added to a tar file. When you call add(), you may supply an optional filter argument that’s a callable. The filter callable will be passed the TarInfo for every file being added, and can modify and return it. If the callable returns None, the file will be excluded from the resulting archive. This is more powerful than the existing exclude argument, which has therefore been deprecated. (Added by Lars Gustäbel; bpo-6856.) The TarFile class also now supports the context management protocol. (Added by Lars Gustäbel; bpo-7232.)
  • The wait() method of the threading.Event class now returns the internal flag on exit. This means the method will usually return true because wait()is supposed to block until the internal flag becomes true. The return value will only be false if a timeout was provided and the operation timed out. (Contributed by Tim Lesher; bpo-1674032.)
  • The Unicode database provided by the unicodedata module is now used internally to determine which characters are numeric, whitespace, or represent line breaks. The database also includes information from the Unihan.txt data file (patch by Anders Chrigström and Amaury Forgeot d’Arc; bpo-1571184) and has been updated to version 5.2.0 (updated by Florent Xicluna; bpo-8024).
  • The urlparse module’s urlsplit() now handles unknown URL schemes in a fashion compliant with RFC 3986: if the URL is of the form "<something>://...", the text before the :// is treated as the scheme, even if it’s a made-up scheme that the module doesn’t know about. This change may break code that worked around the old behaviour. For example, Python 2.6.4 or 2.5 will return the following:
    >>> import urlparse
    >>> urlparse.urlsplit('invented://host/filename?query')
    ('invented', '', '//host/filename?query', '', '')
    Python 2.7 (and Python 2.6.5) will return:
    >>> import urlparse
    >>> urlparse.urlsplit('invented://host/filename?query')
    ('invented', 'host', '/filename?query', '', '')
    (Python 2.7 actually produces slightly different output, since it returns a named tuple instead of a standard tuple.)
    The urlparse module also supports IPv6 literal addresses as defined by RFC 2732 (contributed by Senthil Kumaran; bpo-2987).
    >>> urlparse.urlparse('http://[1080::8:800:200C:417A]/foo')
    ParseResult(scheme='http', netloc='[1080::8:800:200C:417A]',
                path='/foo', params='', query='', fragment='')
  • New class: the WeakSet class in the weakref module is a set that only holds weak references to its elements; elements will be removed once there are no references pointing to them. (Originally implemented in Python 3.x by Raymond Hettinger, and backported to 2.7 by Michael Foord.)
  • The ElementTree library, xml.etree, no longer escapes ampersands and angle brackets when outputting an XML processing instruction (which looks like <?xml-stylesheet href="#style1"?>) or comment (which looks like <!-- comment -->). (Patch by Neil Muller; bpo-2746.)
  • The XML-RPC client and server, provided by the xmlrpclib and SimpleXMLRPCServer modules, have improved performance by supporting HTTP/1.1 keep-alive and by optionally using gzip encoding to compress the XML being exchanged. The gzip compression is controlled by the encode_threshold attribute of SimpleXMLRPCRequestHandler, which contains a size in bytes; responses larger than this will be compressed. (Contributed by Kristján Valur Jónsson; bpo-6267.)
  • The zipfile module’s ZipFile now supports the context management protocol, so you can write with zipfile.ZipFile(...) as f:. (Contributed by Brian Curtin; bpo-5511.)
    zipfile now also supports archiving empty directories and extracts them correctly. (Fixed by Kuba Wieczorek; bpo-4710.) Reading files out of an archive is faster, and interleaving read() and readline() now works correctly. (Contributed by Nir Aides; bpo-7610.)
    The is_zipfile() function now accepts a file object, in addition to the path names accepted in earlier versions. (Contributed by Gabriel Genellina; bpo-4756.)
    The writestr() method now has an optional compress_type parameter that lets you override the default compression method specified in theZipFile constructor. (Contributed by Ronald Oussoren; bpo-6003.)