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Monday, 28 May 2018

Achieving secure, universal, and fine-grained query results verification for secure search scheme over encrypted cloud data

Secure search techniques over encrypted cloud data allow an authorized user to query data files of interest by submitting encrypted query keywords to the cloud server in a privacy-preserving manner. However, in practice, the returned query results may be incorrect or incomplete in the dishonest cloud environment. For example, the cloud server may intentionally omit some qualified results to save computational resources and communication overhead. Thus, a well-functioning secure query system should provide a query results verification mechanism that allows the data user to verify results. In this paper, we design a secure, easily integrated, and fine-grained query results verification mechanism, by which, given an encrypted query results set, the query user not only can verify the correctness of each data file in the set but also can further check how many or which qualified data files are not returned if the set is incomplete before decryption. The verification scheme is loose-coupling to concrete secure search techniques and can be very easily integrated into any secure query scheme. We achieve the goal by constructing secure verification object for encrypted cloud data. Furthermore, a short signature technique with extremely small storage cost is proposed to guarantee the authenticity of verification object and a verification object request technique is presented to allow the query user to securely obtain the desired verification object. Performance evaluation shows that the proposed schemes are practical and efficient.

  • Recently, with the growing popularity of cloud computing, how to securely and efficiently search over encrypted cloud data becomes a research focus. Some approaches have been proposed based on traditional searchable encryption schemes, which aim to protect data security and query privacies with better query efficient for cloud computing.
  • Wang et al. applied hash chain technique to implement the completeness verification of query results by embedding the encrypted verification information into their proposed secure searchable index.
  • Sun et al. used encrypted index tree structure to implement secure query results verification functionality. In this scheme, when the query ends, the cloud server returns query results along with a minimum encrypted index tree, then the data user searches this minimum index tree using the same search algorithm as the cloud server did to finish result verification.
  • Zheng et al. constructed a verifiable secure query scheme over encrypted cloud data based on attribute-based encryption technique (ABE) in the public-key setting.
  • Sun et al. referred to the Merkle hash tree and applied Pairing operations to implement the correctness and completeness verification of query results for keyword search over large dynamic encrypted cloud data.
  • Encrypted data make effective data retrieval a very challenging task.
  • All of these schemes are based on an ideal assumption that the cloud server is an ”honest-but-curious” entity and keeps robust and secure software/hardware environments. As a result, correct and complete query results always be unexceptionally returned from the cloud server when a query ends every time. However, in practical applications, the cloud server may return erroneous or incomplete query results once he behaves dishonestly for illegal profits such as saving computation and communication cost or due to possible software/hardware failure of the server.
  • These verification mechanisms provide a coarse grained verification, i.e., if the query result set contains all qualified and correct data files, then these schemes reply yes, otherwise reply no. Thus, if the verification algorithm outputs no, a data user has to abort the decryption for all query results despite only one query result is incorrect.
  • These verification mechanisms are generally tightly coupled to corresponding secure query constructions and have not universality.
  • In this paper, we extend and reinforce our work to make it more applicable in the cloud environment and more secure to against dishonest cloud server. The main contributions of this paper are
  • We formally propose the verifiable secure search system model and threat model and design a fine grained query results verification scheme for secure keyword search over encrypted cloud data.
  • We propose a short signature technique based on certificateless public-key cryptography to guarantee the authenticity of the verification objects themselves.
  • We design a novel verification object request technique based on Paillier Encryption, where the cloud server knows nothing about what the data user is requesting for and which verification objects are returned to the user.
  • We provide the formal security definition and proof and conduct extensive performance experiments to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of our proposed scheme.
  • Our scheme can verify the correctness of each encrypted query result or further accurately find out how many or which qualified data files are returned by the dishonest cloud server.
  • A short signature technique is designed to guarantee the authenticity of verification object itself 
  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’ LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram : 1 GB
  • Operating system : Windows 7.
  • Coding Language : JAVA/J2EE
  • Tool : Eclipse Luna
  • Database : MYSQL

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