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Thursday, 22 February 2018

Top-k Query Result Completeness Verification in Tiered Sensor Networks (2014)


Top-k Query Result Completeness 

Verification in Tiered Sensor Networks (2014)

ABSTRACT:
A growing number of ad hoc networking protocols and location-aware services require that mobile nodes learn the position of their neighbors. However, such a process can be easily abused or disrupted by adversarial nodes. In absence of a priori trusted nodes, the discovery and verification of neighbor positions presents challenges that have been scarcely investigated in the literature. In this paper, we address this open issue by proposing a fully distributed cooperative solution that is robust against independent and colluding adversaries, and can be impaired only by an overwhelming presence of adversaries. Results show that our protocol can thwart more than 99 percent of the attacks under the best possible conditions for the adversaries, with minimal false positive rates.
AIM:
To verify the position of its communication neighbors without relying on a priori trustworthy nodes.
SYNOPSIS:
In absence of a priori trusted nodes, the discovery and verification of neighbor positions presents challenges that have been scarcely investigated in the literature. In this paper, we address this open issue by proposing a fully distributed cooperative solution that is robust against independent and colluding adversaries, and can be impaired only by an overwhelming presence of adversaries. Geographic routing in spontaneous networks, data gathering in sensor networks, movement coordination among autonomous robotic nodes, location-specific services for handheld devices, and danger warning or traffic monitoring in vehicular networks are all examples of services that build on the availability of neighbor position information.
The correctness of node locations is therefore an all important issue in mobile networks, and it becomes particularly challenging in the presence of adversaries aiming at harming the system. In these cases, we need solutions that let nodes 1) correctly establish their location in spite of attacks feeding false location information, and 2) verify the positions of their neighbors, so as to detect adversarial nodes announcing false locations.
EXISTING SYSTEM:
The correctness of node locations is therefore an all important issue in mobile networks, and it becomes particularly challenging in the presence of adversaries aiming at harming the system. In these cases, we need solutions that let nodes 1) correctly establish their location in spite of attacks feeding false location information, and 2) verify the positions of their neighbors, so as to detect adversarial nodes announcing false locations.
Secure neighbor discovery (SND) deals with the identification of nodes with which a communication link can be established or that are within a given distance. SND is only a step toward the solution we are after: simply put, an adversarial node could be securely discovered as neighbor and be indeed a neighbor (within some SND range), but it could still cheat about its position within the same range. RF signal doesn’t support for to discover the neighbor position.
DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM:
Although the literature carries a multitude of ad hoc security protocols addressing a number of problems related to NPV, there are no lightweight, robust solutions to NPV that can operate autonomously in an open, ephemeral environment, without relying on trusted nodes.
PROPOSED SYSTEM:
In this paper, we focus on the latter aspect, hereinafter referred to as neighbor position verification (NPV for short). Specifically, we deal with a mobile ad hoc network, where a pervasive infrastructure is not present, and the location data must be obtained through node-to-node communication. Such a scenario is of particular interest since it leaves the door open for adversarial nodes to misuse or disrupt the location-based services.
We deal with a mobile ad hoc network, where a pervasive infrastructure is not present, and the location data must be obtained through node-to-node communication. Such a scenario is of particular interest since it leaves the door open for adversarial nodes to misuse or disrupt the location-based services. It is designed for spontaneous ad hoc environments, and, as such, it does not rely on the presence of a trusted infrastructure or of a priori trustworthy nodes. It leverages cooperation but allows a node to perform all verification procedures autonomously.
This approach has no need for lengthy interactions, e.g., to reach a consensus among multiple nodes, making our scheme suitable for both low- and high mobility environments;  It is reactive, meaning that it can be executed by any node, at any point in time, without prior knowledge of the neighborhood. It is robust against independent and colluding adversaries. It is lightweight, as it generates low overhead traffic. To our knowledge, our protocol is the first to provide a fully distributed, lightweight solution to the NPV problem that does not require any infrastructure or a priori trusted neighbors and is robust to several different attacks, including coordinated attacks by colluding adversaries.

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:
NPV protocol that has the following features:
·        It is designed for spontaneous ad hoc environments, and, as such, it does not rely on the presence of a trusted infrastructure or of a priori trustworthy nodes;
·        It leverages cooperation but allows a node to perform all verification procedures autonomously. This approach has no need for lengthy interactions, e.g., to reach a consensus among multiple nodes, making our scheme suitable for both low- and highmobility environments;
·        It is reactive, meaning that it can be executed by any node, at any point in time, without prior knowledge of the neighborhood;
·        It is robust against independent and colluding adversaries;
·        It is lightweight, as it generates low overhead traffic.


 
  
MODULES:
] POLL message Sending
] Position Verification
] The Direct Symmetry Test (DST)
] The Cross-Symmetry Test (CST)
] The Multi-Lateration Test (MLT)
MODULES DESCRIPTION:
POLL message Sending
 The verifier starts the protocol by broadcasting a POLL whose transmission time is stores locally. The POLL is anonymous, since 1) it does not carry the identity of the verifier, 2) it is transmitted employing a fresh, software-generated MAC address, and 3) it contains a public key K0S taken from S’s pool of anonymous one-time use keys that do not allow neighbors to map the key onto a specific node. We stress that keeping the identity of the verifier hidden is important in order to make our NPV robust to attacks. Since a source address has to be included in the MAC-layer header of the message, a fresh, software-generated MAC address is needed.
Position Verification
Once the message exchange is concluded, verifier can decrypt the received data and acquire the position of all neighbors that participated in the protocol. The verifier also knows the transmission time of its POLL and learns that of all subsequent REPLY messages, as well as the corresponding reception times recorded by the recipients of such broadcasts. Applying a ToF-based technique, verifier thus computes its distance from each communication neighbor, as well as the distances between all neighbor pairs sharing a link.
The Direct Symmetry Test (DST)
In the DST, verifier verifies the direct links with its communication neighbors. To this end, it checks whether reciprocal ToF-derived distances are consistent 1) with each other, 2) with the position advertised by the neighbor, and 3) with a proximity range. The latter corresponds to the maximum nominal transmission range, and upper bounds the distance at which two nodes can communicate.
The Cross-Symmetry Test (CST)
The CST ignores nodes already declared as faulty by the DST and only considers nodes that proved to be communication neighbors between each other, i.e., for which ToF-derived mutual distances are available. The CST verifies the symmetry of the reciprocal distances, their consistency with the positions declared by the nodes, and with the proximity range. For each neighbor, verifier maintains a link counter and a mismatch counts. The former is incremented at every new crosscheck on neighbor, and records the number of links between neighbors and other neighbors of verifier.

The MultiLateration Test (MLT)
In MLT, it ignores nodes already tagged as faulty or unverifiable and looks for suspect neighbors in WWS. For each neighbor that did not notify about a link reported by another node a curve is computed and added to the set ILX . Such a curve is the locus of points that can generate a transmission whose Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) at verifier and neighbor matches that measured by the two nodes.

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION:-

HARDWARE CONFIGURATION:-


ü Processor             -        Pentium –IV

ü Speed                             -        1.1 Ghz
ü RAM                    -        256 MB(min)
ü Hard Disk            -        20 GB
ü Key Board            -        Standard Windows Keyboard
ü Mouse                  -        Two or Three Button Mouse
ü Monitor                -        SVGA

SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION:-


ü Operating System                    : Windows XP
ü Programming Language           : JAVA
ü Java Version                           : JDK 1.6 & above.

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